Tuesday, December 27, 2016


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It`s great to see you this Monday.

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I`m Carl Azuz for CNN STUDENT NEWS.

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Today`s current events coverage starts in
the South Pacific. Vanuatu is an island country

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there with a population of about 267,000 people.
One

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natural threat to the nation are cyclones.
They can strike anywhere from December to

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April, a devastating category five storm named
Cyclone Pam came

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ashore over the weekend.

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It hit populated areas, destroying homes and
crops, causing a state of emergency and leaving

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thousands with nothing and nowhere to go.

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At least 90 percent of the homes in Vanuatu`s
capital were badly damaged.

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Help is coming in from Australia, about 1,000
miles away. New Zealand and other countries

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are also sending supplies.

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Because Vanuatu is a poor nation, where many
people live in thatched houses, aide workers

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say they`re dealing with something worse than
a worst

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case scenario.

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From the South Pacific, we`re moving to the
Middle East now, where a significant election

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is taking place. Israel is going to the polls

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tomorrow. It`s a very close race. Two of the
major issues being debated include the nation`s

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economy and defense. And the U.S. government
has

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taken an interest.

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With relations strained between President
Obama and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin

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Netanyahu, some Democrats are working with
a group that`s

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trying to get Netanyahu voted out, while some
Republicans are trying to help him stay in.

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Israelis aren`t voting directly for their
prime minister, though.

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Israeli politics is all about where you sit
in this room. This is the Knesset, the Israeli

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parliament,

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the legislative branch of the government.
And of the 120 seats here below me, the most

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important seat is right at the center of that
U. That`s the

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prime minister`s seat.

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But it`s all the seats around that one that
determine who gets to sit there.

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Israeli Elections Explained
Here in Israel, voters don`t pick a particular

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politician. Instead, they vote for a political
party. But no one party

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will win an outright majority. In fact, the
most successful part in the upcoming elections

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may win as few as 25 seats, less than a quarter.

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So what happens here is that right after the
elections, all of the political parties meet

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with the president. And they tell the president

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this is who we want for prime minister, this
is who we`d like to work with in the upcoming

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government.

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That person then has a chance to put together
a coalition government, to put together a

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majority of the seats here through political
wheeling and

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dealing and trading political favors for support.

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Because of the way this works, winning the
most seats doesn`t guarantee that you`re the

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next prime minister if you can`t make the
right

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deals.

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Now, technically, 61 seats is enough here
in the Knesset. But most prime ministers want

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more than that. They want a coalition of 65
or 66

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seats, just so they have a more secure administration.

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Oftentimes in Israeli politics, it can come
down to one or two of the smaller parties

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in the upcoming election to decide which way
the election

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goes. Because they can sometimes have that
influence, these smaller parties are called

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the king makers. And they determine who gets
to sit in

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the prime minister`s seat and who doesn`t.

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Shoutout
Time for the Shoutout.

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What is not a characteristic of a chameleon?

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If you think you know it, shout it out.

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Is it independent eye movement, zygodactylous
feet, projectile tongues or regenerative tails?

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You`ve got three seconds.

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Go.

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Chameleons are lizards that share all of these
characteristics except the ability to regenerate

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lost or injured limbs or

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tails.

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That`s your answer and that`s your Shoutout.

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Zygodactylous means their toes are grouped
together. There are more than 150 known species

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of chameleons. They`re reptiles. They prefer

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to live in trees. Their tongues are as long
or longer than they are.

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But the most famous characteristic, of course,
is that they`re able to change color, some

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of them.

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How and why exactly might they do that?

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How Chameleons Change Colors

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A chameleon can change the color of its skin
in a couple of minutes. Scientists now have

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discovered how they do it. Chameleons have
two layers

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of crystal-like skin cells. They change the
structure of the upper layer of cells to alter

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the way light is reflected. When a chameleon
is relaxed,

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the cells are close to each other, which reflects
light with short wavelengths, like the color

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blue.

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When a chameleon`s skin gets excited, the
distance between their cells expands, which

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reflects light with long wavelengths like
the colors orange

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or red.

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Only adult male chameleons are capable of
this color change. It usually happens when

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they see a rival male or are courting a mate.

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Roll Call

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Always looking for Roll Call requests at cnnstudentnews.com.

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They`re chosen from each day`s transcript
page.

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Midlothian, Virginia is where we`re start
today. The Bears are watching. They`re at

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Bailey Bridge Middle School.

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We`ll jump to the West Coast town of El Centro.
It`s in Southern California, not far from

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the Mexico border. Hello to The Spartans of

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Central Union High School.

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And out in the Pacific, on the Hawaiian island
of Honolulu, great to hear from The Mustangs.

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They`re online at Moanalua Middle School.

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Cars are not allowed in the Italian city of
Venice. You can take a boat through its 177

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canals. You can walk over its 409 bridges.

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The water is getting higher, and not just
because of rising sea levels. After centuries

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of building on the island city, scientists
say

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Venice is sinking as much as two millimeters
a year and tilting east.

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The effects?

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The Wonder List

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Venice
You can`t do an episode about rising sea levels

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in Venice and not have the flooding.

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Behind the Shot

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It`s all to do with not just the tides and
moon, it`s also wind affects everything. So

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you needed the right conditions. And in the

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`90s, we would get a gap. It wasn`t going
to be much. I got a phone call from the producer

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saying you need to go to Venice tomorrow.

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So I went up there for the first night and
I got set up with the water`s edge. And my

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idea was the water was going to come over
the edge

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and it`s going to flow into St. Mark`s Square
and I`m going to follow it, the trickle, until

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it fills up.

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It didn`t get up high enough and -- let me
see, I`m going back. It was like 11:00 at

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the same time at night.

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And as I walked back to Mark`s Square, there
was the water. It was coming up through the

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drains.

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The next morning, we went and filmed it properly.

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I`ll drop your end in and just put the shutter
speed up slightly.

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Got it.

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We`ll go through this and -- and just -- just
start, just rip.

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Boy.

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Look at this. I don`t know why I bothered
to put on the boots.

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So we both got very, very wet.

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That`ll wake you up.

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But we got some really lovely stuff on the
mobi (ph) going through the water. We`ve got

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a great shot of a couple carrying their baby
in 

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the tram.

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It was probably the most productive single
day of filming we had had in the entire series.

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November 4, 1966.

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There was one particular shot which I really
loved.

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Could a place literally drown?

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Built, walking past the shops.

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And under the weight of just too many people.

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I had a feeling -- welcome to Venice -- that
flooded St. Mark`s Square, it was just perfect.

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It was exactly what we needed for that

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episode.

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Got it.

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Got it.

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Before We Go

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Georgina Harwood, a great-grandmother from
South Africa, recently turned 100 years old,

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so she suited up, climbed on a plane and

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jumped out of it. And she didn`t just do it
for the thrill of the freefall.

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Mrs. Harwood used her jump to raise money
for the National Sea Rescue Institute, a group

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of volunteer rescuers in South Africa.

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It was the third time she`d been skydiving
and the sprightly centenarian is planning

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another adventure -- shark cage diving.

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It would be a sight to see from sky to sea.
In both cases, she`s making a plunge, she`s

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taking a dive, she`s dropping down to raise

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awareness where the sky is literally the limit.

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I`m Carl Azuz with the ups and downs of current
events on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

CNN Student News - December 28, 2016 - English Sub

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